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Subject:Ophthalmos presenting at ISOPT meeting in Rome

Subject:Ophthalmos presenting at ISOPT meeting in Rome, Dec 1-3 2016

Supplementation with ω-3 fatty acids has been demonstrated to be beneficial for dry Macular Degeneration regression when the blood AA/EPA = 1-1.5 in this mouse model of dry macular degeneration, and could be considered a potential therapeutic regimen for patients with dry AMD.

Dr Tassos Georgiou and his Research team presented the results of the study on dry macular degeneration and omega 3 fatty acids.

The summary of the study : 
•A significant increase in the ONL thickness  (photoreceptor nuclei) observed in  the ω-3-treated group.
•The results are consistent with other studies; in particular, Tuo et al. used double knockout Ccl2-/-/Cx3cr1-/- mice to investigate the effect of an ω-3 PUFA diet. This effect was suggested to occur through a reduction in the AA metabolism, as demonstrated by the decreased pro-inflammatory derivatives (PGE2 and LTB4) (5).
•Our findings indicated a superior effect with regard to photoreceptor preservation and perhaps regeneration because the ω-3-treated group exhibited an even greater ONL thickness than that of younger mice (3-month-old).
•Fatty acid analysis showed reduced pro-inflammatory and increased anti-inflammatory fatty acids in both blood and retina in the treatment groups.
•EPA and DHA retinal levels were higher in the treated groups, suggesting that ω-3 treatment is enhancing retinal function.
•A decrease in the transcript levels of retinal TLR3 and NF-κB was observed in the treatment groups, with a more evident effect in the ω-3 group. Once stimulated, TLR3 is associated with microglia cell activation through production of interleukins and other cytokines via NF-κB regulation (6).
•Therefore, reduction of TLR3 and NF-κB mRNA levels may indicate a reduced profile of microglia activation in the retina and subsequent decrease in the production of inflammatory cytokines.
•A significant decrease IL-18 transcript levels was observed in the ω-3 group. Doyle et al. reported that drusen isolated from donor AMD eyes activates the NLRP3 inflammasome, causing secretion of IL-18 and IL-1β (7), demonstrating IL-18 importance in disease progression. 
•Our findings suggest that treatment with ω-3 fatty acids evidently increases the retinal ONL and has an effect on the resolution of inflammation; although the latter is not the only determinant factor for disease regression.
•Although there is no direct explanation for the pronounced effect of ω-3 treatment with regard to the number of photoreceptors, it is hypothesised that ω-3 PUFAs may involve a stimulatory effect on endogenous retinal stem cells, such as the Muller glial cells and the RPE cell. 

'Supplementation with ω-3 PUFAs has been demonstrated to be beneficial for dry AMD regression when AA/EPA = 1-1.5 in this mouse model, and could be considered a potential therapeutic regimen for patients with dry AMD.'said Dr Georgiou who is the founder and director of Ophthalmos Research and Educational Institute.

These research results will be published soon

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